Estimating the proportion of HIV transmissions from main sex partners among men who have sex with men in five US cities. The coefficients for both the Risk Reduction and Intimacy Interference subscales were significant in this step. Comparative analysis identified that older men were less likely to idealise a relationship or emotional connection, but were more likely to specify the sexual acts or behaviours they wished to engage in. We would also like to thank Richard Jenkins for his support of the project. Recruiting hard-to-reach men who have sex with men into an intervention study: However, this population is considered at highest risk for HIV infection, and can be argued to be those most in need of innovative intervention strategies. This final framework was then utilised by GH to code all 12, responses to one or more themes. Few inconsistencies emerged and these were resolved.
Stanford University Press; Stanford: With emerging understanding of how HIV treatments can limit onward transmission [ 14 , 15 ], a growing body of literature has also explored how MSM perceive and utilise these new HIV prevention options [ 16 , 17 ]. Therefore, therapists can find themselves working with clients presenting issues of sexual diversity and sexual offending, with the latter mistakenly being confused as synonymous with the former. HIV prevention interventions need to attend to the broad range of sexual desires held by gay and bisexual men in delivery of holistic sexual health promotion that can help them to have the best sex with the least harm. It also elaborates on how the highs and lows of sex via the internet can straddle all three sections of this book. However, this population is considered at highest risk for HIV infection, and can be argued to be those most in need of innovative intervention strategies. It seems reasonable to assume that risk reduction and intimacy interference attitudes might operate differently to influence condom use as the number of repeat sex acts with the same casual partner increases. AB reviewed a random sample of responses utilising the final framework to ensure consistency of coding with GH. An enhanced understanding of intimacy concerns and motives among gay, bisexual, and other MSM must acknowledge that intimacy includes not only physical or sexual closeness, but also emotional connectedness, self-disclosure, acceptance, and trust [ 43 ]. The Risk Reduction, Pleasure Reduction, and Intimacy Interference subscales were not originally designed to tap into these constructs. Diaz R, Ayala G. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License http: However, this analytic strategy does not control for overall number of sex acts or partners in its analysis. The extent of sexual unhappiness is a significant cause for concern, particularly among those organisations adopting a health promotion approach to preventing the onward transmission of HIV. Further statistical analysis sought to establish if and how responses differed according to key demographic variables. Discussion Findings from this study suggest a pivotal role for beliefs about condoms reducing intimacy in predicting unprotected sex with casual partners among a group of substance-using, sexually risky gay and bisexual men. In other words, we examined the extent to which condom attitudes influenced the percent of the time in which an individual had unprotected sex, such that a man had unprotected sex in two out of two encounters is considered more strongly influenced than a man who had unprotected sex in three out of ten encounters. In England, a partnership of community-based organisations have also drawn upon these charters in their development of national HIV prevention planning frameworks, including the current framework, Making it Count 4. Many gay and bisexual men report being reluctant to give up the sexual and emotional intimacy associated with unprotected sex [ 40 , 41 ], and in one study of Latino gay men, participants reported that sex with condoms was incompatible with intimacy and trust [ 42 ]. A notable exception is the Pleasure and Sexual Health study [ 23 ] in Australia, which reports on how gay men weigh up their desire to avoid acquiring or transmitting HIV with a strong desire to have sex that is pleasurable. A first draft of this framework was then used to code another random sample of responses by each of the four authors listed. Towards an understanding of risk behavior: Estimating the proportion of HIV transmissions from main sex partners among men who have sex with men in five US cities. This process was repeated a further two times until all were satisfied with the thematic framework, including the conceptualisation of each theme and the way it was described. We would also like to thank Richard Jenkins for his support of the project.
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