Males show unilateral activation, primarily in the left inferior frontal gyrus. There are other examples of this sort in the literature on studies with animals Crews, ; Gottlieb, Epting and Overman also failed to replicate the performance fluctuations across the menstrual cycle. In particular, the mental rotation task has demonstrated the most sensitivity at detecting sex differences in spatial ability Sanders et al. These differences in mental health may also produce differences in physical health. Nevertheless, when effects are observed they invariably tend to be positive influences on verbal function, particularly verbal memory and verbal fluency. Gender differences are more pronounced when situational demands are very small or non-existent as well as in ambiguous situations. The left hemisphere was predominantly activated in females' brains, whereas there was bilateral activation in males' brains.
Third, what might be the basis for the surprising extreme abdominal sensitivity exhibited by the men, and what implications does this sensitivity have for symptom reporting and clinical testing? Disruptions in phonological processing predict, characterize, and explain many of the difficulties experienced by poor readers. Synthesis of the findings from the literature on hormonal influences on cognitive function and from the literature on reading has led to the novel hypothesis that hormones, specifically estrogen, influence phonological processing, which in turn influences the development of verbal fluency, speech production, and reading skills. This includes interest in babies Leveroni and Berenbaum, , reported likelihood of using aggression in conflict situations Berenbaum and Resnick, , and spatial ability Hampson et al. However, following exposure to a traumatic event, the risk for PTSD was two times higher in women. Similarly, children with reading disabilities have difficulties with speech production Catts, , ; in this case, poor readers have difficulty either selecting, ordering, or articulating phonemes during speech Catts, Reliable sex differences have also been reported for spelling, another verbal ability closely related to reading; however, reports of sex differences in other areas of verbal ability such as vocabulary or reading comprehension have been inconsistent and are not considered reliable Hampson and Kimura, His conclusions he quoted were "No evidence was found for sex differences in the mean level of g. Recent studies suggest that the story may be more complex. Behavioral development in rodents. There were high rates of debt and psychiatric symptoms related to gambling observed in both groups of men and women. Studies with older populations have more varied results, with some indicating a positive influence of estrogen on cognitive function Jacobs et al. The duration of PTSD is longer in women, as well. It is unclear how much these results can be explained by sex-related socialization and how much may ultimately be explained by hormonal factors that have not been delineated, such as ovarian estrogens. Added to this greater sensitivity of females is the higher prevalence of many painful disorders in females Table 4—1. Two members of the committee believed that reliance on analyses that divide variance into main effects and smaller contributing effects sidetracks other biologically appropriate analysis, such as pursuing developmental understanding of the emergence of cognitive skills. The purpose of this chapter is not to review all the evidence about the nature and determinants of sex differences in behavior or any other characteristic but to describe how basic genetic and physiological differences between males and females might produce phenotypic differences throughout the life span. On the other hand, before concluding that a specific drug may eventually be prescribed on the basis of the sex of the individual or the reproductive or hormonal status of the patient, it also seems important to consider how stress exerts its cumulative effects over the life span of an individual. Women also reported more fear in situations that involved "a male's hostile and aggressive behavior "  In anger-eliciting situations, women communicated more intense feelings of anger than men. One consequence of this situation is that results of studies comparing pain in young adult females and young adult males may depend on the time of the menstrual cycle in which the women's pain was assessed. There is increasing recognition of the importance of ovarian estrogens for both physical and behavioral sexual differentiation, and it seems likely that androgens are modified by the effects of ovarian estrogens. One study chose to identify gender-related differences by examining male and female gamblers, who were using a gambling helpline. Two members of the committee argued that continuing to use the phrase organizational effect as an explanation could preclude experiments that might reveal the actual mechanisms by which hormones, genes, and a variety of postnatal experiences produce the sex and gender differences of interest. Results to date from observational studies and clinical trials with women receiving hormone replacement therapy are far from consistent Barrett-Connor, b; Haskell et al. It has been suggested that sexually dimorphic brain anatomy, the differential effects of estrogens and androgens, and the heavy exposure of male adolescents to alcohol and other toxic substances can lead to this earlier onset in men. The following section provides an illustration of work done in this area; for detailed reviews of hormonal influences on human behavior, see Berenbaum , Collaer and Hines , Hampson and Kimura , and Wilson
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Sex differences in the Brain: Fact or Fiction?
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